Main Article Content
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic. Public awareness about washing hands is important in preventing the spread of COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between increased water sources, basic water services, improved sanitation facilities, basic hand washing facilities, soap and water availability with COVID-19 transmission in 44 countries. Using Demographic and Health Survey Data in 44 countries including data on populations living in households using improved water sources, basic water services, improved sanitation facilities, hand washing practices, basic hand washing facilities with soap and water availability, ownership of electricity, television, cellphones , and households consisting of only those aged> 65 years. Data is downloaded in the form of Excel. The COVID-19 case was reported by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Science and Systems Engineering (CSSE) on April 28, 2020 in 44 countries. DHS program data from 44 countries that are relevant to the CSSE Johns Hopkins University data are carried out linear regression tests and alternatives (spearman test) using SPSS 22. Relationships between variables by looking at the correlation coefficient and p value for each variable. The results of the study are presented in tabular form. Results: Increased water sources, basic water services, improved sanitation facilities, basic hand washing facilities, soap and water available in relation to COVID-19 transmission, with each correlation coefficient of 0.421, 0.506, 0.374, 0.243 and 0.399.
- Jones L, Walsh K, Willcox M, Morgan P, Nichols J. The COVID-19 pandemic: Important considerations for contact lens practitioners. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020 Apr;
- WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic [Internet]. WHO. 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 29]. p. 1. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
- Grech V. Unknown unknowns - COVID-19 and potential global mortality. Early Hum Dev. 2020 Mar;144:105026.
- Zhai P, Ding Y, Wu X, Long J, Zhong Y, Li Y. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Mar;105955.
- WHO. WHO | Clean hands protect against infection [Internet]. WHO. 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 29]. p. 1. Available from: https://www.who.int/gpsc/clean_hands_protection/en/
- Chen X, Ran L, Liu Q, Hu Q, Du X, Tan X. Hand Hygiene, Mask-Wearing Behaviors and Its Associated Factors during the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study among Primary School Students in Wuhan, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr;17(8).
- Lin Y-H, Liu C-H, Chiu Y-C. Google searches for the keywords of “wash hands” predict the speed of national spread of COVID-19 outbreak among 21 countries. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Apr;
- Sun J, Shi Z, Xu H. Non-pharmaceutical interventions used for COVID-19 had a major impact on reducing influenza in China in 2020. J Travel Med. 2020 Apr;
- Gupta MK, Lipner SR. Personal Protective Equipment Recommendations Based on COVID-19 Route of Transmission. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2020.
- Morawska L, Cao J. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The world should face the reality. Environ Int. 2020 Apr;139:105730.
- Chavez S, Long B, Koyfman A, Liang SY. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A primer for emergency physicians. Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Mar;
- Modi PD, Nair G, Uppe A, Modi J, Tuppekar B, Gharpure AS, et al. COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Cureus. 2020 Apr;12(4):e7514.
- Beiu C, Mihai M, Popa L, Cima L, Popescu MN. Frequent Hand Washing for COVID-19 Prevention Can Cause Hand Dermatitis: Management Tips. Cureus. 2020 Apr;12(4):e7506.
- Demographic and Health Surveys Program. STATcompiler [Internet]. DHS Program. 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. p. 1. Available from: https://www.statcompiler.com/en/
- Johns Hopkins University. COVID-19 Map - Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center [Internet]. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 29]. p. 1. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
- Benvenuto D, Giovanetti M, Vassallo L, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M. Application of the ARIMA model on the COVID-2019 epidemic dataset. Data Br. 2020 Apr;29:105340.
- Eslami H, Jalili M. The role of environmental factors to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). AMB Express. 2020 May;10(1):92.
- Chen Y, Jin YL, Zhu LJ, Fang ZM, Wu N, Du MX, et al. [The network investigation on knowledge, attitude and practice about Novel coronavirus pneumonia of the residents in Anhui Province]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Feb;54(0):E004.
- Thampi N, Longtin Y, Peters A, Pittet D, Overy K. It’s in our hands: a rapid, international initiative to translate a hand hygiene song during the COVID-pandemic. The Journal of hospital infection. 2020.
- MacGibeny MA, Wassef C. Preventing adverse cutaneous reactions from amplified hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic: how dermatologists can help through anticipatory guidance. Arch Dermatol Res. 2020 May;1–3.
- Sachdeva M, Gianotti R, Shah M, Lucia B, Tosi D, Veraldi S, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: Report of three cases and a review of literature. J Dermatol Sci. 2020 Apr;
- Hernández-García I, Giménez-Júlvez T. Assessment of Health Information About COVID-19 Prevention on the Internet: Infodemiological Study. JMIR public Heal Surveill. 2020 Apr;6(2):e18717.