Bra Usage Duration and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study



Bra, breast cancer, women


Introduction: Breast cancer is a disease feared by most women, with 2.3 million women worldwide being diagnosed with this disease. In 2024, Indonesia will relocate its capital to East Kalimantan Province, which currently has the second-highest (1%) prevalence of breast cancer cases in Indonesia. Objective: Given the increasing prevalence of breast cancer, it is worthwhile to scientifically examine the relationship between the duration of bra usage, age at first bra usage, bra size suitability, and types of bras used in relation to the occurrence of breast cancer. Method: The study design used was a case-control study with a 1:1 ratio of 48 respondents (24 cases and 24 controls) selected through purposive sampling. The analysis employed chi-square and odds ratio tests. Results: The study revealed that the average age of the respondents was 45.25 years. Furthermore, the variables of bra usage duration (OR=2.333), age at first bra usage, bra size suitability, and bra type (OR=0.639) showed no association with the occurrence of breast cancer (α>0.05). Conclusion: This research concludes that there is no association between bra usage and the occurrence of breast cancer in women in East Kalimantan Province. Recommendation: It is suggested to reduce the duration of bra usage to less than 24 hours to minimize the risk factors for breast cancer.


Download data is not yet available.


American Cancer Society. (2022). Breast Cancer What is breast cancer ? American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society.

Arafah, A. B. R., & Notobroto, H. B. (2018). Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Perilaku Ibu Rumah Tangga Melakukan Pemeriksaan Payudara Sendiri (Sadari) [Factors Associated with the Behavior of Housewives in Performing Breast Self-Examination (BSE)]. The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 12(2), 143.

Chen, L., Malone, K. E., & Li, C. I. (2015). Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 23(10), 2181–2185.

Fatmawati, S. (2019). Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kanker Payudara pada Wanita Pasangan Usia Subur di RSU Vina Estetica Tahun 2019 [Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in Women of Reproductive Age in Vina Estetica Hospital in 2019] [Institut Kesehatan Helvetia Medan].

Globocan. (2020). Cancer Incident in Indonesia. In World Health Organization (Vol. 858).

Gross, R. E. (2000). Breast cancer: risk factors, screening, and prevention. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 16(3), 176–184.

Grunfeld, E. A., Ramirez, A. J., Hunter, M. S., & Richards, M. A. (2002). Women’s knowledge and beliefs regarding breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 86(9), 1373–1378.

Hsieh, C. c., & Trichopoulos, D. (1991). Breast size, handedness and breast cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, 27(2), 131–135.

Momenimovahed, Z., & Salehiniya, H. (2019). Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy, 11, 151–164.

Naviri, T. (2016). Buku Pintar Kesehatan dan Kecantikan Payudara [Smart Book on Breast Health and Beauty]. PT. Elex Media Komputindo.

Nindrea, R. D., Kusnanto, H., Haryono, S. J., Harahap, W. A., Dwiprahasto, I., Lazuardi, L., & Aryandono, T. (2020). Development of Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Model for Women in Indonesia: A Case-Control Study. Research Square, 1–25.

Purwanti, S., Syukur, N. A., & Haloho, C. B. (2021). Faktor Risiko Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Kanker Payudara Wanita [Risk Factors Associated with the Incidence of Breast Cancer in Women]. Jurnal Bidan Cerdas, 3(4), 168–175.

Rios, S., Carolina, A., Chen, R., Chen, J. R., Marino, C., Filho, C., Thalita, N., Amorim, S., & Lin, C. W. (2016). Wearing a Tight Bra for Many Hours a Day is Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer. 1(1), 1–5.

Simangunsong, I. M. D. N. B. (2018). Perancangan Informasi Mengenai Pemakaian Bra Yang Baik Dan Benar Melalui Buku Ilustrasi [Designing Information on Proper Bra Usage through an Illustrated Book] [Universitas Komputer Indonesia Bandung].

Singer, S. R. (2018). Dressed to kill: The link between breast cancer and bras. Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy, 10, 5956.

So, W. K., Chan, D. N., Lou, Y., Choi, K.-C., Chan, C. W., Shin, K., Kwong, A., & Lee, D. T. (2015). Brassiere wearing and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World Journal of Meta-Analysis, 3(4), 193.

Thongkhao, P., Peerawong, T., Bridhikitti, J., Jiratrachu, R., Suwanraksa, C., & Geater, A. (2019). Effects of regular bra-wearing on acute skin toxicity in breast-conserving radiotherapy women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Care, 4(4), 157–164.

Woodrich, C. (2013). Perempuan Dan Negara: Kajian Feminis Dalam Konteks Sosial “Bh” Karya Agus Noor [Women and the State: A Feminist Study in the Social Context of "Bh" by Agus Noor]. Jurnal Kawistara, 3(2), 186–197.

World Cancer Research Fund International. (2022). Breast cancer statistics. WCRF.

World Health Organization. (2021). Breast cancer. Who. 2020%2C there were 2.3,the world’s most prevalent cancer.



How to Cite

Pramardika, D. D., Kasaluhe, M. D., & Barokah, S. (2023). Bra Usage Duration and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study. Jurnal Bidan Cerdas, 5(2), 51–57.