Survey of Traumatic Childbirth Experiences in Postpartum Mothers Using the City Birth Trauma Scale in Sorong Regency


  • Hamdiah Ahmar Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Papua, Sorong, Papua Barat Daya, Indonesia
  • Alia Andriany Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Papua, Sorong, Papua Barat Daya, Indonesia
  • Rafika Maharani Medical Education Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Papua, Sorong, Papua Barat Daya, Indonesia


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Childbirth, Postpartum Mother, Survey, City Birth Trauma Scale


The mental health of postpartum mothers is influenced by traumatic childbirth experiences that can result in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Individuals experiencing PTSD tend to be more sensitive. Poor mental health during the postpartum period can alter a woman's self-perception and disrupt family relationships. This research aims to conduct a Survey of Traumatic Childbirth Experiences in Postpartum Mothers Using the City Birth Trauma Scale in Sorong Regency. This is a quantitative survey research using the survey method to analyze risk factors for postpartum trauma incidents, employing the City Birth Trauma Scale 5 questionnaire by examining exposure or Odds Ratio (OR). Meanwhile, to test the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the City Birth Trauma Scale instrument, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and Cronbach's Alpha methods were used. The study was conducted in August-September 2023 at 2 Public Health Centers in Sorong Regency, Malawili Public Health Center, and Marian Public Health Center, with a sample of 70 postpartum mothers drawn using purposive sampling. The research results show that 24 respondents (100%) meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Only 1 respondent (4%) does not meet the criteria for Non-Diagnostic PTSD. The conclusion of this research is that there is no significant relationship between the evaluated factors in the table and trauma symptoms, based on the analysis of the given P values and Odds Ratios (OR). Regular monitoring of postpartum mental health is necessary, especially for those experiencing early trauma symptoms.


Pattersan, J. Traumatised Midwives: Traumatised Women. J. AIMS. 30, 8-11. (2019).

Takegata, M. et al. Aetiological relationships between factors associated with postnatal traumatic symptoms among Japanese primiparas and multiparas: A longitudinal study. Midwifery 44, 14–23 (2017).

Gökçe İsbİr, G., İncİ, F., Bektaş, M., Dikmen Yıldız, P. & Ayers, S. Risk factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth in Turkey. Midwifery 41, 96–103 (2016).

Thomson, G. & Downe, S. Emotions and support needs following a distressing birth: Scoping study with pregnant multigravida women in North-West England. Midwifery 40, 32–39 (2016).

Alcorn, K. L., O’Donovan, A., Patrick, J. C., Creedy, D. & Devilly, G. J. A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events. Psychol. Med. 40, 1849–1859 (2010).

Yildiz, P. D., Ayers, S. & Phillips, L. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in pregnancy and after birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Affect. Disord. 208, 634–645 (2017).

Simpson, M. & Catling, C. Understanding psychological traumatic birth experiences: A literature review. Women and Birth 29, 203–207 (2016).

LoGiudice, J. A. A Systematic Literature Review of the Childbearing Cycle as Experienced by Survivors of Sexual Abuse. Nurs. Womens. Health 20, 582–594 (2016).

Soltani, N., Mokhber, N., Esmaily, H. & Abedian, Z. Depression and anxiety in pregnancy and postpartum in women with mild and severe preeclampsia. Iran. J. Nurs. Midwifery Res. 20, 454 (2015).

Beck, C. T. & Watson, S. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. A Cross Sect. Nurs. Res. J. Artic. Discuss. Eval. 59, 169–178 (2016).

CT., B. Birth trauma: in the eye of the beholder. Nurs Res. 53, 28–35 (2004).

Ayers, S. & Pickering, A. D. Do women get posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth? A prospective study of incidence. Birth 28, 111–118 (2001).

Hebden, L., Cook, A., Van Der Ploeg, H. P., & Allman-Farinelli, M. Development of smartphone applications for nutrition and physical activity behavior change. J. Med. Internet Res. 14, 1–12 (2012).

Statistics, O. for N. Child Mortality (death cohort) Tables in England and Wales - Office For National Statistics. [online]. (2021).

Fenech, G. & Thomson, G. Tormented by ghosts from their past’: A meta-synthesis to explore the psychosocial implications of a traumatic birth on maternal well-being. Midwifery 30, 185–193 (2014).

Tietz, A., Zietlow, A. L. & Reck, C. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour. Arch. Womens. Ment. Health 17, 433–442 (2014).

James, S. Women’s experiences of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic childbirth: a review and critical appraisal. J. Arch Womens Ment Heal. 18, 761–771 (2015).

American Psychiatric Association, D., & A. P. A. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 5, (2013).

Ayers, S., Wright, D. B., and Thornton, A. Development of a measure of postpartum PTSD: The city birth trauma scale. Front. Psychiatry 9, (2018).

Webb R, Smith AM, Ayers S, Wright DB, T. A. Development and Validation of a Measure of Birth-Related PTSD for Fathers and Birth Partners: The City Birth Trauma Scale (Partner Version). Front Psychol. 2, 596779 (2021).

Kelsey Rene Milam. Implementing Birth Trauma Screening At The Post-Partum Appointment: A Quality Improvement Project. (Montana State University Bozeman, Montana, 2023).

Yakupova V, S. A. Postpartum PTSD and birth experience in Russian-speaking women. Midwifery. 112, (2022).

Akbulut, Y., Dursun, Ö. Ö., Dönmez, O., & Şahin, Y. L. In search of a measure to investigate cyberloafing in educational setting. Comput. Human Behav. 55, 616–625 (2016).

Srkalović Imširagić, A., Begić, D., Šimičević, L. & Bajić, Ž. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology after childbirth – A Croatian longitudinal study. Women and Birth 30, e17–e23 (2017).

Zambaldi, C. F., Cantilino, A., & Sougey, E. B. Bio-socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of postpartum Brazilian women. Arch. Womens. Ment. Health 14, 435-439. (2011).

Slesman, L., Hoon, C. Y., Arifin, E. N., Haji-Othman, N. A., & Tan, A. Can Money Buy Happiness? Income and Multidimensional Life Satisfaction in Brunei Darussalam. Asian Dev. Rev. 40, 113-150. (2023).

Gaya, L. Money does not buy happiness… or does it? An investigation of the relationship between individual income and life satisfaction in the national income dynamics study. (Master’s thesis, Faculty of Commerce, 2021).

Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Guo, N. & Jiang, H. Postpartum depression and postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder: prevalence and associated factors. BMC Psychiatry 21, 1–11 (2021).

Huang, Y., Wang, X., Yang, Y., Qu, X., Wang, A., Huang, X., & Zhou, H. The role of education in maternal depressive symptoms among different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study in rural western China. J. Affect. Disord. 262, 359-365. (2020).

A., P. T. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth: does ethnicity have an impact? J. Perinat. Educ. 17, 17–26. (2008).

Bailham, D. & Joseph, S. Post-traumatic stress following childbirth: A review of the emerging literature and directions for research and practice. Psychol. Heal. Med. 8, 159–168 (2003).

(BPS), B. P. S. R. I. Mengulik Data Suku di Indonesia. BPS - Statistics Indonesia. (2015).

Thiel, F. & Dekel, S. Peritraumatic dissociation in childbirth-evoked posttraumatic stress and postpartum mental health. Arch. Womens. Ment. Health 23, 189–197 (2020).

Dobson, H., Malpas, C. & Kulkarni, J. Measuring posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Australas. Psychiatry 30, 476–480 (2022).

Pheto, B. P. The Occurrence of Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) Amongst Women in Johannesburg Metropolitan Clinics A research report. (University of the Witwater, 2021).

de Graaff, A. M. et al. Peer-provided psychological intervention for Syrian refugees: results of a randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of Problem Management Plus. BMJ Ment. Heal. 26, 1–10 (2023).

Gumelar, L. A. M. & Hermawati, Y. Representasi Re-Experiencing, Avoidance, dan Hyperarousal of Mental Health dalam Novel Lanang. Nuances Indones. Lang. 1, 71–85 (2021).



How to Cite

Ahmar, H., Andriany, A., & Maharani, R. (2024). Survey of Traumatic Childbirth Experiences in Postpartum Mothers Using the City Birth Trauma Scale in Sorong Regency. Poltekita : Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 17(4), 1691–1701.



Original Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.