Differences in the Effects of Red and White Dragon Fruit Extracts (Hylocereus Polyrhizus and Undatus) on the Body Weight of Mice with Obesity



  • Yenny Erika Department of Biomedicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Djulim Djulim Department of Biomedicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Johanna Fransiska Wijaya Department of Biomedicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Olivia Des Vinca Albahana Napitupulu Department of Biomedicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia


Obesity, White Dragon Fruit Extracts, Red Dragon Fruit Extracts, Free Fatty Acid


Obesity causes many severe diseases. Thus, prevention efforts must include regulating body weight, increasing physical condition, or using natural goods like plant medicine in pure compounds with antioxidants. This study examined whether red and white dragon fruit extracts (Hylocereus polyrhizus and undatus) reduced body weight in obese Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). This type of research is quantitative, with true experiments. The samples used were 24 Wistar mice. The research treatment groups were negative control, positive control, group 3 with Red Dragon Fruit Extract 100 mg/BW/day, and group 4 with White Dragon Fruit Extract 130 mg/BW/day. The research procedures started with the acclimatization of test animals, phytochemical processes, increasing the body weight of mice, monitoring body weight, and testing leptin and FFA levels. The research data was processed using SPSS. This study found that extracts from red and white dragon fruit extracts reduced FFA better and substantially impacted leptin levels (p = 0.010). The normality and homogeneity tests showed significance > 0.05 in each group pre-and post-test. The pre-test data probability was 0.369, and the post-test probability was 0.164 > 0.05. One-way ANOVA test results: pre-test data 0.325 > 0.05, 0.000 < 0.05. Red Dragon Fruit Extract at 100 mg/BW/day and White Dragon Fruit Extract at 130 mg/BW/day helped the treatment group lose weight, while the control group remained obese Wistar rats. The research conclusion shows that red and white dragon fruit contains tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and saponins, which can help reduce the weight of obese Wistar rats.


Albuquerque D, Nóbrega C, Manco L, Padez C. The contribution of genetics and environment to obesity. British medical bulletin. 2017 Sep 1;123(1):159-73.

Choi MR, Kwak SM, Bang SH, Jeong JE, Kim DJ. Chronic saponin treatment attenuates damage to the pancreas in chronic alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Journal of ginseng research. 2017 Oct 1;41(4):503-12.

Caballero B. Humans against obesity: who will win?. Advances in nutrition. 2019 Jan 1;10:S4-9.

WHO, World Health Statistics 2022 (Monitoring Health for The SDGs). 2022. [Online]. Available: http://apps.who.int/bookorders.

Kerkadi A, Sadig AH, Bawadi H, Al Thani AA, Al Chetachi W, Akram H, Al-Hazzaa HM, Musaiger AO. The relationship between lifestyle factors and obesity indices among adolescents in Qatar. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 Nov;16(22):4428.

Wagner KH, Schwingshackl L, Draxler A, Franzke B. Impact of dietary and lifestyle interventions in elderly or people diagnosed with diabetes, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer and micronutrient deficiency on micronuclei frequency–a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. 2021 Jan 1;787:108367.

Vekic J, Zeljkovic A, Stefanovic A, Jelic-Ivanovic Z, Spasojevic-Kalimanovska V. Obesity and dyslipidemia. Metabolism. 2019 Mar 1;92:71-81.

McKiernan F, Houchins JA, Mattes RD. Relationships between human thirst, hunger, drinking, and feeding. Physiology & behavior. 2008 Aug 6;94(5):700-8.

Rogers PJ, Brunstrom JM. Appetite and energy balancing. Physiology & behavior. 2016 Oct 1;164:465-71.

Mourao DM, Bressan J, Campbell WW, Mattes RD. Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults. International journal of obesity. 2007 Nov;31(11):1688-95.

Oussaada SM, Van Galen KA, Cooiman MI, Kleinendorst L, Hazebroek EJ, van Haelst MM, Ter Horst KW, Serlie MJ. The pathogenesis of obesity. Metabolism. 2019 Mar 1;92:26-36.

Abbott L, Lemacks J, Greer T. Development and evaluation of a measure for social support provided by friends during lifestyle management programs. InHealthcare 2022 May 13 (Vol. 10, No. 5, p. 901). MDPI.

Kayode OO. Diet and obesity. Psychology and pathophysiological outcomes of eating. 2021 Aug 19:237.

Goryakin Y, Lobstein T, James WP, Suhrcke M. The impact of economic, political and social globalization on overweight and obesity in the 56 low and middle income countries. Social Science & Medicine. 2015 May 1;133:67-76.

Feingold KR. Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics. 2022 Sep 1;51(3):437-58.

Salih KJ. The major pathways of lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol) and lipoprotein metabolism. Zanco J Pure Appl Sci. 2021;33(4):61-72.

Wang HH, Garruti G, Liu M, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis: recent advances in reverse cholesterol transport. Annals of hepatology. 2018 Apr 20;16(1):27-42.

Fryk E, Olausson J, Mossberg K, Strindberg L, Schmelz M, Brogren H, Gan LM, Piazza S, Provenzani A, Becattini B, Lind L. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in the obese may develop as part of a homeostatic response to elevated free fatty acids: A mechanistic case-control and a population-based cohort study. EBioMedicine. 2021 Mar 1;65.

Di Pietro ME, Mannu A, Mele A. NMR determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils. Processes. 2020 Mar 31;8(4):410.

Henderson GC. Plasma free fatty acid concentration as a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Nutrients. 2021 Jul 28;13(8):2590.

Boden G. Obesity and free fatty acids. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2008 Sep 1;37(3):635-46.

Hernández-Ramos L, García-Mateos R, Castillo-González AM, Ybarra-Moncada MC, Nieto-Ángel R. Fruits of the pitahaya Hylocereus undatus and H. ocamponis: nutritional components and antioxidants. J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 2020 Jan 1;93:197-203.

Hossain FM, Numan SM, Akhtar S. Cultivation, nutritional value, and health benefits of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp.): A Review. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 2021 Sep 1;8(3):259-69.

Notoatmodjo S. Metodologi Penelitian Kesehatan, 3rd ed. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2022.

NRC. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed., vol. 39, no. 4. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2011.

Federer WT. Randomization and Sample Size In Experimentation,” Cornell University Biometrics Unit Technical, vol. Number BU-236-M, pp. 1–15, Sep. 1966, Accessed: Feb. 07, 2024. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/1813/32334

Lee SI, Kim JW, Lee YK, Yang SH, Lee IA, Suh JW, Kim SD. Anti-obesity effect of monascus pilosus mycelial extract in high fat diet-induced obese rats. J Appl Biol Chem. 2011 Jan;54(3):197-205.

Ghozali I. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program IBM SPSS 25. Semarang, 2018.

Kiess W, Galler A, Reich A, Müller G, Kapellen T, Deutscher J, Raile K, Kratzsch J. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Obesity reviews. 2001 Feb;2(1):29-36.

Kylanel AN, Sugiaman VK, Pranata N. Fibroblast viability test toward red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel ethanolic extract. Syst Rev Pharm. 2020 Dec 1;11(12):356-60.

Luu TT, Le TL, Huynh N, Quintela-Alonso P. Dragon fruit: A review of health benefits and nutrients and its sustainable development under climate changes in Vietnam. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2021 Apr 29;39(2):71-94.

Panjaitan RG. Anti-diabetic activity of the red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in ethanol extract against diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2021;13(5).



How to Cite

Erika, Y., Djulim, D., Wijaya, J. F., & Napitupulu, O. D. V. A. (2024). Differences in the Effects of Red and White Dragon Fruit Extracts (Hylocereus Polyrhizus and Undatus) on the Body Weight of Mice with Obesity. Poltekita : Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 17(4), 1767–1775. https://doi.org/10.33860/jik.v17i4.3593



Original Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.