Prevalence and Determinants Stunting Among Children Under Two Years in Indonesian District



Stunting, Low Birth Weight, Food Insecurity, Malnutrition, Child Health


The study aims to analyze the prevalence and determinants of stunting in children under two years of age in Tojo Una-Una District, Indonesia as focus location of stunting. The method is Cross-sectional study design, the sample of 300 children aged 0-23 months, stratified random sampling technique. Data collection in June-July 2022. Stunting data was obtained by measuring body length using the length measuring board. The WHO-Antro 2005 software was used to determine the Z-Score height per age. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyzes used SPSS version 22.00. The Results of this research show that 33.7% of children under the age of two are stunted. Stunting in children under the age of two is associated with child age, birth weight, and food insecurity. In addition to a history of low birth weight (AOR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7) and experiencing food insecurity (AOR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5), children aged 12-23 months (AOR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.7-7.2) have a higher tendency to experience stunting than those who are not. The Conclusion is the prevalence of stunting which is more than 20 percent is a priority health problem that must be resolved by 2024. Interventions to reduce stunting by reducing the incidence of low birth weight, reducing food insecurity, managing birth spacing > 3 years, number of children less than 3, and breastfeeding.


Kahssay M, Woldu E, Gebre A, Reddy S. Determinants of stunting among children aged 6 to 59 months in pastoral community, Afar region, North East Ethiopia: unmatched case control study. BMC Nutr. 2020 Dec;6(1):9.

Holdsworth EA, Schell LM. Stunting. Int Encycl Biol Anthropol. 2018;1–3.

UNICEF/WHO/WORLD BANK. Levels and trends in child malnutrition UNICEF / WHO / World Bank Group Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Key findings of the 2021 edition. World Heal Organ [Internet]. 2021;1–32. Available from:

Kementerian kesehatan RI. Hasil Utama Riskesdas 2018. Jakarta; 2018.

Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional. Rancangan Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasiional (RPJMN) 2020-2024. Rencana Pembang Jangka Menengah Nas 2020-2024. 2019;313.

The World Bank. Spending Better to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia: Findings from a Public Expenditure Review. World Bank [Internet]. 2020; Available from:

B.S. P, Guddattu V. Understanding the Change in the Prevalence and Factors Influencing the Childhood Stunting Using District-Level Data from NFHS-4 and NFHS-5 in India. Inq J Heal Care Organ Provision, Financ. 2022 Jan;59:004695802211271.

Kemenkes. Hasil Survei Status Gizi Indonesia (SSGI) 2022. 2023;1–7.

Bappeda Sulawesi Tengah. Rembuk Stunting dan Pemberian Penghargaan Tahun 2022 Tingkat Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Mar 7]. Available from:

Ekholuenetale M, Barrow A, Ekholuenetale CE, Tudeme G. Impact of stunting on early childhood cognitive development in Benin: evidence from Demographic and Health Survey. Egypt Pediatr Assoc Gaz [Internet]. 2020;68(1):31. Available from:

De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Alaaraj N, Ahmed S, Alyafei F, Hamed N. Early and Long-term Consequences of Nutritional Stunting: From Childhood to Adulthood. Acta Biomed. 2021 Feb;92(1):e2021168.

Umwali N, Kunyanga CN, Kaindi DWM. Determinants of stunting in children aged between 6–23 months in Musanze region, Rwanda. Front Nutr. 2022 Nov;9.

Asmare AA, Agmas YA. Determinants of coexistence of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children under five years in the Gambia; evidence from 2019/20 Gambian demographic health survey: application of multivariate binary logistic regression model. BMC Public Health. 2022 Aug;22(1):1621.

Fufa DA. Determinants of stunting in children under five years in dibate district of Ethiopia: A case-control study. Hum Nutr Metab. 2022 Dec;30:200162.

Das D. Evaluating Changes in Determinants of Stunting among Children Under 2 Years and Assessing Their Contribution to Socioeconomic Disparity in Child Nutritional Status across India. Indian J Community Med. 2022;47(1):96.

Namirembe G, Ghosh S, Ausman LM, Shrestha R, Zaharia S, Bashaasha B, et al. Child stunting starts in utero: Growth trajectories and determinants in Ugandan infants. Matern Child Nutr. 2022 Jul;18(3).

Eryando T, Sipahutar T, Budhiharsana MP, Siregar KN, Nur Aidi M, Minarto, et al. Spatial analysis of stunting determinants in 514 Indonesian districts/cities: Implications for intervention and setting of priority. Geospat Health. 2022 May;17(1).

Widyaningsih, Mulyaningsih, Rahmawati, Adhitya. Determinants of socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in stunting: evidence from Indonesia. Rural Remote Health. 2022 Mar;22(1):1–9.

Niragire F, Ndikumana C, Nyirahabimana MG, Mugemangango C. Child stunting and associated risk factors in selected food-insecure areas in Rwanda: an analytical cross-sectional study. Pan Afr Med J. 2022 Apr;43:49–61.

Toledo G, Landes M, van Lettow M, Tippett Barr BA, Bailey H, Crichton S, et al. Risk factors for stunting in children who are HIV‐exposed and uninfected after Option B+ implementation in Malawi. Matern Child Nutr. 2023 Jan;19(1).

Noor MS, Andrestian MD, Dina RA, Ferdina AR, Dewi Z, Hariati NW, et al. Analysis of Socioeconomic, Utilization of Maternal Health Services, and Toddler’s Characteristics as Stunting Risk Factors. Nutrients. 2022 Oct;14(20):4373.

Halli SS, Biradar RA, Prasad JB. Low Birth Weight, the Differentiating Risk Factor for Stunting among Preschool Children in India. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Mar;19(7):3751.

Quamme SH, Iversen PO. Prevalence of child stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa and its risk factors. Clin Nutr Open Sci. 2022 Apr;42:49–61.

Ndagijimana S, Kabano I, Ntaganda J. Analysis of risk factors that influence stunting among Rwandan children under the age of five. African J Food, Agric Nutr Dev. 2022 Jul;22(5):20480–97.

Islam MS, Zafar Ullah AN, Mainali S, Imam MA, Hasan MI. Determinants of stunting during the first 1,000 days of life in Bangladesh: A review. Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Sep;8(9):4685–95.

Yazew T. Risk Factors of Stunting and Wasting among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Household Food Insecurity of Jima Geneti District, Western Oromia, Ethiopia: An Observational Study. S. Razzaque M, editor. J Nutr Metab. 2022 Jan;2022:1–8.

Afolabi RF, Palamuleni ME. Exploring determinants of under-5 stunting in malawi using a generalised linear mixed model. SAJCH South African J Child Heal. 2021;15(1):18–24.

Tamirat KS, Tesema GA, Tessema ZT. Determinants of maternal high-risk fertility behaviors and its correlation with child stunting and anemia in the East Africa region: A pooled analysis of nine East African countries. Spradley FT, editor. PLoS One. 2021 Jun;16(6):e0253736.

Wati EK, Wahyurin IS, Sari HP, Zaki I, Dardjito E. Stunting Incidence in Infant Related to Mother’s History During Pregnancy. J Kesehat Masy. 2022 Mar;17(4):535–41.

Dhingra S, Pingali PL. Effects of short birth spacing on birth-order differences in child stunting: Evidence from India. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2021 Feb;118(8).

Adeyemi O, Toure M, Covic N, van den Bold M, Nisbett N, Headey D. Understanding drivers of stunting reduction in Nigeria from 2003 to 2018: a regression analysis. Food Secur. 2022 Aug;14(4):995–1011.

Nsubuga EJ, Arinda Kato I, Lee S, Ssenyondo M, Isunju JB. Predictors of Stunting and Underweight Among Children Aged 6 to 59 months in Bussi Islands, Wakiso District, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutr Metab Insights. 2022 Jan;15:117863882211251.

Suratri MAL, Putro G, Rachmat B, Nurhayati, Ristrini, Pracoyo NE, et al. Risk Factors for Stunting among Children under Five Years in the Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), Indonesia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Jan;20(2):1640.

Tello B, Rivadeneira MF, Moncayo AL, Buitrón J, Astudillo F, Estrella A, et al. Breastfeeding, feeding practices and stunting in indigenous Ecuadorians under 2 years of age. Int Breastfeed J. 2022 Dec;17(1):19.

Aheto JMK, Dagne GA. Geostatistical analysis, web-based mapping, and environmental determinants of under-5 stunting: evidence from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Lancet Planet Heal. 2021 Jun;5(6):e347–55.

Afzal A. Determinants of stunting among under five children in pakistan: A cross sectional study. Pakistan Paediatr J. 2021;45(3):327–31.

Yunitasari E, Pradanie R, Arifin H, Fajrianti D, Lee BO. Determinants of Stunting Prevention among Mothers with Children Aged 6–24 Months. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021 May;9(B):378–84.

Vale D, Andrade ME da C, Dantas NM, Bezerra RA, Lyra C de O, Oliveira AGR da C. Social Determinants of Obesity and Stunting among Brazilian Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis. Nutrients. 2022 Jun;14(11):2334.

Hafid F, Taqwin T, Linda L, Nasrul N, Ramadhan K, Bohari B. Specific Interventions to Prevent Stunting in Children Under 2 Years after the Natural Disaster. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021 Feb;9(E):64–9.

Hendraswari CA, Purnamaningrum YE, Maryani T, Widyastuti Y, Harith S. The Determinants of Stunting in 24-59 Month-Old Children in Kulon Progo District 2019. Kesmas Natl Public Heal J. 2021 May;16(2):71–7.

Huriah T, Handayani P, Sudyasih T, Susyanto BE. The determinant factors of stunting among children in urban slums area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(T4):1–5.

Podungge Y, Yulianingsih E, Porouw HS, Saraswati E, Tompunuh MM, Claudia JG, et al. Determinant Factors of Stunting in Under-Five Children. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021 Dec;9(B):1717–26.

Titaley CR, Ariawan I, Hapsari D, Muasyaroh A, Dibley MJ. Determinants of the Stunting of Children Under Two Years Old in Indonesia: A Multilevel Analysis of the 2013 Indonesia Basic Health Survey. Nutrients. 2019 May;11(5):1106.

Beal T, Tumilowicz A, Sutrisna A, Izwardy D, Neufeld LM. A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Oct;14(4):e12617.

Aryastami NK, Shankar A, Kusumawardani N, Besral B, Jahari AB, Achadi E. Low birth weight was the most dominant predictor associated with stunting among children aged 12–23 months in Indonesia. BMC Nutr. 2017 Dec;3(1):16.

Nasrul. Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting Anak Baduta di Sulawesi Tengah. Promot J Kesehat Masy. 2018;8(2):131–46.

Nasrul N, Taqwin T, Hafid F. The Prevention Against Morbidity and Stunting Through Vitamin A Supplementation In Sigi and Touna Districts. In: Pontianak International Health Conference (PIHC). ISBN 978-602-51424-0-6; 2017. p. 317–25.

Nasrul, Hafid F, Razak Thaha A, Suriah. Faktor Risiko Stunting Usia 6-23 Bulan di Kecamatan Bontoramba Kabupaten Jeneponto. Media Kesehat Masy Indones. 2015;11(3):139–46.

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Buku Saku Hasil Studi Status Gizi Indonesia (SSGI) Tahun 2021. Jakarta: Badan Litbangkes - Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2021.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Buku Saku Hasil Studi Status Gizi Indonesia (SSGI) Tahun 2022. Kemenkes RI. Jakarta: Badan Kebijakan Pembangunan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan; 2022. 1–154 p.

Mbuya MNN, Chidem M, Chasekwa B, Mishra V. Biological, Social, and Environmental Determinants of Low Birth Weight and Stunting among Infants and Young Children in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Work Pap No7 Calverton, Maryland, USA ICF Macro. 2010;(7).

Martorell R, Flores R, Hickey M. Stunting in Guatemala: analyses of change over 15 years. Bethesda Abt Assoc Inc. 2002;

Akombi B, Agho K, Hall J, Wali N, Renzaho A, Merom D. Stunting, Wasting and Underweight in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Aug;14(8):863.

Derso T, Tariku A, Biks GA, Wassie MM. Stunting, wasting and associated factors among children aged 6–24 months in Dabat health and demographic surveillance system site: A community based cross-sectional study in Ethiopia. BMC Pediatr. 2017 Dec;17(1):96.

Thiombiano-Coulibaly N, Rocquelin G, Eymard-Duvernay S, Zougmoré ON, Traoré SA. Effects of early extra fluid and food intake on breast milk consumption and infant nutritional status at 5 months of age in an urban and a rural area of Burkina Faso. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;58(1):80–9.

Rahman MS, Howlader T, Masud MS, Rahman ML. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter? Islam FMA, editor. PLoS One. 2016 Jun;11(6):e0157814.

Islam MM, Alam M, Tariquzaman M, Kabir MA, Pervin R, Begum M, et al. Predictors of the number of under-five malnourished children in Bangladesh: application of the generalized poisson regression model. BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec;13(1):11.

Mishra K, Kumar P, Basu S, Rai K, Aneja S. Risk Factors for Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children below 5 y of Age in India: A Case-Control Study. Indian J Pediatr. 2014 Aug;81(8):762–5.

Harper A, Rothberg A, Chirwa E, Sambu W, Mall S. Household Food Insecurity and Demographic Factors, Low Birth Weight and Stunting in Early Childhood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study in South Africa. Matern Child Health J. 2022 Sep;

Abbas F, Kumar R, Mahmood T, Somrongthong R. Impact of children born with low birth weight on stunting and wasting in Sindh province of Pakistan: a propensity score matching approach. Sci Rep. 2021 Dec;11(1):19932.

Mtongwa RH, Festo C, Elisaria E. A comparative analysis of determinants of low birth weight and stunting among under five children of adolescent and non-adolescent mothers using 2015/16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). BMC Nutr. 2021 Dec;7(1):64.

Roesler AL, Smithers LG, Wangpakapattanawong P, Moore V. Stunting, dietary diversity and household food insecurity among children under 5 years in ethnic communities of northern Thailand. J Public Health (Bangkok). 2019 Dec;41(4):772–80.

Mahmudiono T, Nindya T, Andrias D, Megatsari H, Rosenkranz R. Household Food Insecurity as a Predictor of Stunted Children and Overweight/Obese Mothers (SCOWT) in Urban Indonesia. Nutrients. 2018 Apr;10(5):535.

Ahmad I, Khalique N, Khalil S, Urfi, Maroof M. Dietary diversity and stunting among infants and young children: A cross-sectional study in Aligarh. Indian J Community Med. 2018;43(1):34.

Haileselassie M, Redae G, Berhe G, Henry CJ, Nickerson MT, Mulugeta A. The influence of fasting on energy and nutrient intake and their corresponding food sources among 6-23 months old children in rural communities with high burden of stunting from Northern Ethiopia. Nutr J. 2022 Dec;21(1):4.

Kusumawardani HD, Ashar H. Food Consumption Patterns for Children Under Two Years (Toddler) in Areas with High Stunting Prevalence. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2022 May;1024(1):012071.

Gassara G, Chen J. Household Food Insecurity, Dietary Diversity, and Stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2021 Dec;13(12):4401.

Adachi M, Urabe D. Diet diversity was limited in Malawi resulting in stunting despite availability of foods in markets. Pediatr Int. 2021 Mar;63(3):311–5.

Hlaing LM, Fahmida U, Htet MK, Utomo B, Firmansyah A, Ferguson EL. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12–23-month-old Myanmar children. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jul;116(S1):S16–26.

Marume A, Archary M, Mahomed S. Predictors of stunting among children aged 6-59 months, Zimbabwe. Public Health Nutr. 2023 Jan;1–27.

Saha UR, van Wesenbeeck CFA. Changes in the determinants and spatial distribution of under-five stunting in Bangladesh: Evidence from Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) 1996–97, 2014 and 2017/18. Bora JK, editor. PLoS One. 2022 Dec;17(12):e0278094.

Nurfatimah N, Ramadhan K, Entoh C, Longgupa LW, Hafid F. Continuity of Midwifery Care Implementation to Reduce Stunting. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021 Dec;9(E):1512–6.

Sumiaty S, Ali MN, Muhamad H, Hafid F. Roles of Midwives and Indonesian Midwives Association in Reducing Risk Factors for Stunting in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021 Jul;9(G):8–13.



How to Cite

Hafid, F., Ansar, A., Nasrul, N., Ramadhan, K. ., & Ardiansyah, A. (2023). Prevalence and Determinants Stunting Among Children Under Two Years in Indonesian District . Poltekita : Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 16(4), 553–563.



Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >> 

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.